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The Process and Optimization of Protein Crystallization

Protein crystallization process is an orderly process that is random in the solution state of the molecule into a rule-ordered solid state, the protein in the solution changes from liquid to solid phase is a necessary condition for the solute in solution with certain over-saturation.

Generally think that if this ordering process begins, must be a certain size nuclei, and to maintain certain conditions, the solution of the molecules lose the free movement of energy (translation, rotation, etc.) to the nucleus on binding, stable chemical bonds to form new, so that the whole system reduces the formation energy of crystals. In supersaturated solution, the general process of macromolecular crystals and salt, small organic molecules such as the crystallization process can be divided into three stages: ① the formation of stable nuclei; ② from the nuclei of crystal growth; ③ growth to stop.

For protein crystallization and growth of the large crystals, the key is to control the degree of supersaturation and crystallization rate. In general, the low supersaturation and slow crystallization rate is conducive to protein crystallization. For protein crystallization in many, mainly bulk crystallization, evaporation diffusion crystallization (hanging drop method and sitting drop method), liquid / liquid diffusion crystallization and equilibrium dialysis crystallization.Another sublimation crystallization, co precipitation crystallization, gel diffusion crystallization, hydrothermal and solvothermal crystallizatio, membrane crystallization. In recent years, with the rapid development of cross-discipline, more and more physical methods have been used in this research field.

Effect on the protein crystallization process is usually by studying conditions in microgravity field of biological macromolecules (such as proteins, enzymes) obtained the crystallization process. In micro-gravity environment, the gravity yards that pair of crystal solution crystallization process of Nongdu distribution system, especially in the concentration distribution of Sheng Chang Jingtibiaomian impact to affect the crystallization of macromolecules Sheng Wu Jing Ti nucleation and growth, as well as impurities into the Jinglattice. A large number of studies show that the growth of micro-gravity conditions, the protein crystals, with great size and high quality.

Protein molecules with different ions and polar groups, when the applied electric field when charged molecules may lead to changes in the distribution system crystal, leading to its crystallization behavior change. Taleb so as to lysozyme in the experimental study of the crystalline electric field effect on its results show that: in the electric field under the action of lysozyme protein crystal nucleation rate Jiaowu O’clock electric field has decreased, but from larger protein crystals.

Wakayam on the application of an external magnetic field affect the crystallization of proteins has been studied and found that the magnetic field can not only affect the crystallization rate, and can inhibit or accelerate the rate of a growth direction to change the crystalline lens. External magnetic field effects on the crystallization process of research, including MHD, magnetic field strength, magnetic field homogeneity and so on crystal nucleation and crystal growth. External magnetic field, the stability of the crystal system, pH, conductivity, etc. may change, affecting the crystal nucleation and crystal growth, resulting in the product crystal form, particle size and distribution, shape and other changes. Lipus and other dual-layer model to explain the magnetic force (Lorentz force) on the growth of crystal surface the role of charged particles.

Currently, for protein crystallization studies, most results have some relevance only applies only to the studied experimental Dui Xiang Yu, the other proteins, Serena with characteristics similar to a particular process of protein crystallization Dubu general meaning. This requires further study the crystallization mechanism, optimizing the crystallization conditions, crystal technology innovation in order to find the crystallization process of the universal laws exist to predict crystallization conditions, so that the whole crystallization process in a controllable state, to higher quality protein crystals.

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